Hereditary characteristics are determined by the DNA of the cell nucleus. I think that the construction of DNA is the strongest argument against evolution. My dispute is as follows:
All hereditary characteristics are coded in DNA. In other words: DNA in a cell makes it possible that a human, an animal or a plant can grow out of a cell, mostly a fertilized egg. The letters of this code are formed by the building blocks called bases. These bases are called Guanine (G), Adenine (A), Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T).
An “alphabet” of only four letters is used. These letters are only used to make three-letter words. If we indicate such a word with 1-2-3, then there are four possibilities for 1, namely G, A, C and T. This is also the case for 2 and 3. The whole language has only 4 x 4 x 4 words. This is sufficient because these 64 words indicate amino acids, and there are only about 20 different amino acids. These amino acids are then the building blocks of the proteins with which our body is constructed.
A number of bases such as AAT-GAC-TAG-GGC form therefore four words that code for four consecutive amino acids; this is the tiny beginning of a protein molecule (in this discussion it isn’t important to indicate how the translation of words to amino acids and proteins takes place).
Human beings have three billion bases in their DNA. These must be present in exactly the right order. A mistake of just one of the three billion bases can give rise to a hereditary disease, such as hemophilia, colour blindness, nerve or muscle diseases, but many other mistakes are tolerated.
Biology indicates that human DNA has three billion bases that must be in the correct order. Evolution states that this has all happened by chance (in what John Jacobs calls a “materialistic-atheistic” evolution theory).
We could number the bases from 1 to 3,000,000,000. These would then by chance have been placed in the right order. That means for base number one a chance of 1:4 since there are four different bases, that all could end up by chance at the first place. The same is the case for all bases until the three billionth.
The amount of base sequences that can occur by chance becomes huge. Try it with just six bases. Now there are already 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 = 4096 possible combinations. Only one would be correct.
For the human genome the chance that the right sequence of three billion bases would be formed 1:43 billion . This number consists of 1,806,179,974 digits, a chance that is unbelievably small.
I will try to clarify why this is unbelievable with a spatial example: Let us try to compare this chance with that of finding a needle in a haystack. Let’s seek a needle of 1mm3 in a haystack of 10 x 10 x 10m. The haystack is 10,000 x 10,000 x 10,000 larger than the needle. In other words: it is 1012 times larger or a million x a million times larger than the needle.
If we consider this it is clear that we shouldn’t try to look for a needle in this haystack. But we are only speaking of a number with 12 zeroes. We must, however, consider a number with 1.8 billion digits!
Let’s try something larger. Light spreads from one point in all directions with a speed of 300.000 km/sec. In one year that becomes a large sphere of light: 3.5 x 1057 mm. This gigantic volume can be described with 58 digits. Still, nothing compared to 1.8 billion digits.
It is clear that the chance of DNA occurring randomly is unbelievably small, and that a correct DNA molecule cannot occur by chance.
But let’s assume that somehow a cell would appear in this way and that a male would grow out of it. Where does the female come from that fits with him? The evolutionist’s answer could be that she comes forth out of the male (for example by the loss of a Y-chromosome and duplication of an X-chromosome). But how can a male exist and replicate himself as long as there is no female?
There are a lot of other problems. A human can only live when there are sufficient plants and animals present. These animals and plants can only be consumed if they are biologically related to the human. Oxygen and water are also necessary. The temperature must also be regulated carefully. How can it be that all these matters are nicely present, in order, by chance, at the right time?
You may ask why this DNA-molecule-as-argument-against-evolution is so important. The answer is that DNA is essential for the appearance of life; the whole complexity of our biological existence is controlled by this molecule. The problems explaining this molecule by a materialistic-atheistic evolution theory will be clear by now.
There are various arguments that can be brought in against this thought pattern. I would like to mention a few:
Evolution can take place because a lot can happen in a few billion years. Answer: A few billion years is much too short. One billion years has only 3×1016 seconds. That is not enough time to let something happen with a chance of one to a number with 1.8 billion digits.
It isn’t just pure chance; there are ordering principles or certain steps in the formation of such a molecule. Answer: which ordering principles would have made it possible for the first DNA to be correctly formed?
Probably much less DNA has to be made by chance because many parts of the DNA are copied many times. Answer: that is true, but it doesn’t solve the problem. Assume that every piece of DNA is copied 1000 times; that would mean that not 100% of the DNA needs to be constructed in order, but only 0.1%. Not three billion bases need to be made in order, but only three million. The chance that this would happen by chance is one to a number of 1.8 million digits. This is also not realistic.
There are 64 three-letter words for about 20 amino acids. There are therefore amino acids that are stated with more than one three-letter word. The chance for a correct DNA then becomes much larger, and we must correct for that. Answer: that is correct. But a simple calculation shows also here that this does not create a realistic chance for the correct formation of DNA.
Life began not with human DNA but for example with DNA of a bacteria. That DNA is much smaller. The chance of random formation of this bacteria DNA is gigantically larger than that of human DNA. Answer: I agree. But the chance is still unrealistically small.
As long as DNA must occur by chance within evolutionist thinking, it is, in my opinion, the strongest argument against evolution. Darwin assumed, however, one or more life forms created by God. This assumption of Darwin is justified by the above arguments.
Darwin wrote his book in 1859. Since then the theory of evolution is prominently present in biology. But the arguments against this theory are much stronger than those supporting it.
After having clarified that the theory of evolution cannot explain the existence of DNA, it will be clear for all that creationism (seen as an alternative science) cannot explain the mechanism for the occurrence of this molecule either. I am neither an evolutionist nor a creationist. It is acceptable to me that a researcher ponders about mechanisms that can explain the occurrence of DNA. But I think that the conclusion is still that there is no logical and researchable hypothesis for the way the complete human DNA was formed. Also, I can not see why a researcher must have a hypothesis to explain the forming of DNA. According to me, we can only say:
“For the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and deity” (Romans 1:20).
But by stating this we have departed from the areas of physics, evolutionism and creationism.
Prof. Dr. Willem den Otter
Previously presented in Dutch on http://evolutie.biz